The design of a chronograph wristwatch The structure of a moving chronograph

Banded Pocket Chronograph

The current form of the pocket watch is
It has been a typical tool since about 1880.

After 1900, when people started wearing wristwatches,
The pocket watch case was redesigned to include a leather band around the wrist.

At first I was able to get the strap through.
There were only large pocket watches (18, 19 or 20 rpm movements) that were equipped with two frames.
Push buttons are mainly for appearance,
It is placed in the crown above the 12,
The second loop (or second frame, see illustrations Z 93 and 94)
It was soldered by 6.

The first redesign of the chronograph as a wristwatch was
Samuel Jeanneret in 1910
It was patented by (No. 17864).

Here, the Lépine case was fixed to the arm and the crown pointed in the direction of the hands.

Therefore, to make it easier to read the watch, you can rotate the dial by 90 degrees or
Or the numbers needed to be changed.

As a natural consequence, the three and minute registers were located by the crown and a small second register was located opposite the nine.

The rear lid, and usually the bezel as well, were attached to the case by hinges.

A few years later,
Flat wiring is attached to the round case,
It was fitted with a two-piece leather band or a continuous one-piece leather strap.

Z 92 shows a wrist chronograph made by Omega in 1912.

Chronograph watches

When the First World War broke out,
The need for chronographs increased dramatically.
The result was a movement that was small enough to fit into a handy case.

Case sizes have grown in the meantime.

It was about the size of a wristwatch.

Of course, the frame that held the band remained attached to the flexible case for movement, but the size remained at 13 lignes,
The watch and leather band fit well around the wrist.

The Z 93 has the strap attached.
13-line wrist chronograph display,
There are 9 push buttons (designed for left hand?)
It will be displayed.

This case form,
The movable frame and hinges around the lid and glass edge are
It remained the custom until well into the 20th century.

Until then, the crown push button had not changed either.

In the 1930s,
When the change from enamel dials to metal ones was made for mass production,
Buttons and crowns separated.

The case no longer has a hinge,
It was fitted with a coupe that was snapped together with a specially designed case rim.

This applied to steel cases as well as gold and silver cases.

Crystal was also snapped often and often.

There are at least two reasons for this:
Often three hinges can be eliminated,
This is mainly due to cost savings in case manufacturing.

As the example of Z 94 shows,
A movable, rigid frame was used.

The shape of the separate buttons on the case wall is
It was usually rectangular,
A pointed oval shape was often used.

Breitling in 1934
When the two-button chronograph was released,
It turned out to be an innovation that spread too quickly.

One push button is
One was for start and stop functions and the other push button was for zero setting.

By placing this button on the left and right near the winding crown,
As was previously necessary,
First, you can now time several events in succession.

To follow the styling trends,
Although the circular shape was maintained due to the inward movement,
The angled case uses a special mechanism located next to the crown.
Numerous case buttons had to be held in place from the inside.

The Z 95 is
This shows a drawing for square case button attachment patent number 211143 from 1939 by Werner Schmitz.

This case shape is
Chronographs were also very popular in the early 40s.

Companies such as Rolex, Universal, and Breitling produce nearly identical watches in this format (see Figs. 188-194).

Although Breitling's two-button mechanism offered a truly convenient layout,
Attempts have been made and patents have been issued that have gone off of it in the hope of improving upon it.

In 1940, LeCoultre obtained a chronograph patent (No. 213955).
I have applied for.

One button moved in three directions to control the chronograph function.

It doesn't include the tiny second hand that's always running,
Figures 1 and 2 of the Z 96 show the dials and moving surfaces.

At the starting position,
This function was taken over by the central chronograph hand.

There was no minute register either.

Instead, a case setting ring was provided.

It is marked between 1 minute and 59 minutes,
At the beginning of the time to be measured,
It was set at the mark above the minute hand.

Waterproof case button for chronograph

Universal SA is
"The first" with a barrel or round case in 1933
Published advertisement for Water-Snowproof Chronograph (Z 97).

It was not explained how the horn buttons were made watertight.

In 1926,
Rolex introduced waterproof cases for men's watches.

In this watch,
The winding crown was waterproofed in a special way.

Between the case and the lid, there is rubber, lead,
Or the rear case lid of a waterproof watch was screwed down with a cork gasket in place.

The chronograph is water-resistant,
We were able to deploy it immediately after the button waterproofing issue was resolved.

Several companies have made great efforts and obtained numerous patents for button waterproofing.

Making the winding crown waterproof wasn't a problem; it just needed to be concentric.

Rather, making the buttons waterproof is
actuated radially to the motion,
It was a big problem.

The material is, the button movement,
In particular, the spring inside the case must not prevent it from returning to its initial position.
You have to be flexible.

At first,
The La Chaux-de-Fonds firm Horter applied for a patent (no. 201343) for a button waterproofing device with a conical insert in the case.

The Z 98 shows three examples:
The outward protruding Z button (Figures 2 and 3)
Either one of them is cone-shaped,
Or cone 11 is the case (Figure 1)
It is attached to the inside of the case and button 13 is screwed in.

The cone, in its "rest position", is protected (from rain, snow, spray, etc.)
It was waterproof enough.

When pushed in, the cone seat was open,
Additional inserts 14 (Fig. 1), 2c (Fig. 2) or 5d (Fig. 3) ensure that no water or moisture can penetrate.

In the version shown in Figure 3,
There was even a double cone (5a:6 and 5c:7).
In these three versions,
The button was guaranteed to be fairly waterproof at the two end positions,
In each version (Figure 1),
I was unable to make the button waterproof by pressing it halfway.

Further weaknesses are:
The return spring of the movement is often too weak,
The problem was that the button had not been returned to the waterproof position on the cone seat.

For this reason,
Holler filed a supplemental patent (number 204722) in the same year,
An elastic insert has been added between the button and the case to improve the weak spot (Z 99).

The elastic insert 4 (Fig. 1) or 7 (Fig. 2)
We gave the button enough return thrust to ensure a waterproof closure of the cone seat.

A constant waterproof state is created between case 1 and button 2c or 5a.

It soon became clear that the button cones were expensive to put directly into the case.
If the case was damaged, the entire case had to be replaced.

From there came the idea of ​​making the buttons completely interchangeable.

The button now simply screws into the case in place.

In 1938,
Fernand Sardes of La Chaux-de-Fonds:
The company received a patent (number 205962) for a button that was attached separately to the case and installed from the inside.

It was intended for the angle button case, not waterproof.

Z 100 shows patent drawings,
From there we can see that button 2 had its own return spring.

Thus, as can be seen in Figure 1,
Each button has a return spring 9 and a rubber seal 8
It was equipped with.

Also, another seal was placed between the case 7 and the threaded tube 12.

Figure 2 shows
Showing the outline of the button head 1 and the guide tube 12,
To prevent the two parts from twisting,
Without this safety it was impossible to screw in from the outside.

In the subsidiary's patent No. 257306,
In addition to the one I have already received (No. 236424),
The same inventors (J. Boninch and his son) gave an example of an additional version in which the button included a safety against unintentional movement from outside (Z102).

This cover had two or three intersecting slits.

To operate the chronograph, it was not enough to just press it in far enough to make contact with the case.
To press the button down for any chronograph function,
I had to stick my fingernail through one of the slits.

In 1933, Breitling was already
The two-button chronograph is introduced efficiently.
Ten years later he received another patent (No. 241962) for the one-button chronograph.

Patent drawings are shown in Z103.
Here, the stems 6 and 7 are made up of two parts:
Two partial pieces 6' and 7' are made to face the notches.

When you press down on crown 3,
The partial piece 5 presses against the casing 9,
The casing 9 activates the starting arm 8 of the chronograph mechanism.

The spring 10 located inside the crown is used to return the crown to its original position.

There is a waterproof seal 11 between the tubes 2,2' and the inner surface of the crown 3.

When Crown 3 is pulled out in the normal way,
The winding stem 7 is placed within the range of motion of the hands.

The portion 6' always extends into the notch of the stem 7,
Since the portion 7' ​​extends into the notch of the winding stem 6,
The forward and reverse movement of the winding stem is guaranteed (Z 103, fig. 2).

This design has the big advantage of eliminating the additional buttons in the case, which certainly reduces costs.

Repair Instructions

Note: The three red dots in the diagram below indicate eccentricity.

When the movement is broken down,
Do not remove or turn these.

Disassembly Procedure:

1. Release the spring click marked with an arrow,
Drop the mainspring.

2. Remove the balance and pallet.

3. Remove the winding stem.

4. When the groove where the catch pin of the Start Arm 8140 fits into the start button attachment appears,
Loosen the start arm and remove the button,
Move it out of the case.

If this button is spring loaded,
or mounting flange if shown
First remove the movement and then press the button.

And in both cases,
Remove the hands and dial.

5.Heart Piece Lever Spring 8350
and remove the Heart Piece Lever 8220.

6. Remove the carrying arm 8080 and its spring 8320.

7. Remove the blocking lever 8200 and its spring 8345.

8. Starting arm 8140 and its spring 8335;
and remove the Zero Setter 8180.

9. Remove the crown wheel 8070 and lock 8335.

10. Chronograph Wheel Bridge 8500,
Minute Register Wheel 8020,
Remove the central chronograph wheel 8000.

11. Remove the star wheel arm 8100 and its spring 8325.

12. Jumper spring 8270,
Remove the friction spring 8290 and the drive wheel 8060.
The final step is done with a fork-shaped lever.

13. Dismantle the wheel train.
Clean all components in the usual way.

Check A:
The condition of the hands, the teeth of the central chronograph wheel,
Test the teeth on the carrying arm and drive wheels.
Remove the bridge from the carrying arm.
Carrying arm
Clean the two pivot housings.

The latter returned to that place,
You must be able to move absolutely freely.

as needed,
The star wheel and its carrying arm should be treated in the same way.

Clean the wheel tubes in minutes.

Make sure the pivot housing is present.

Reconfigure the wheel train.

Oil all components,
Turn the spring one and a half times to test its operation.

Before reassembling the chronograph mechanism,
It is recommended to remove the balance and anchor.

Assembly Instructions:

1. Install the minute register bridge 8290.

2. Install the Star Wheel Carrying Arm 8100 and its spring 8325 (the rocker should be able to rotate freely on its axis).

3. After oiling the long pivot (to test the operation of the friction spring under the pinion)
Install the minute chronograph wheel 8020 and the central chronograph 8000.
Screw in the chronograph bridge 8500.

4. Tighten the minute register wheel block 8270 securely.
Make sure there is light tension.

5. After the screw is greased,
Screw in the crown wheel 8070,
Proceed to block 8355.

6. Zero setter 8180, starting arm 8140,
And screw in that spring 8335.

7. Install the blocking lever 8200 and its spring 8345.

8. Spray oil on both the short pivot of the central chronograph wheel 8000 and the pivot of the transmission wheel.
Attach the carrying arm 8080 and its screws.

Screw in the carrying arm spring 8320 tightly (never apply oil to the minute register wheel pivot and star wheel).

9. Insert the drive wheel 8060 at the same height as the transmission wheel.

10. Heart Piece Lever 8220
And screw in that spring 8350.

11. Test that all components can move freely.
Install the anchor and balance.

Test B:

The wheel is the transmission wheel, the transmission wheel is the central chronograph wheel,
Test it by touching the needle to the teeth of the star wheel.

Set the chronograph to zero
Ensure that the central chronograph wheel is blocked.

The minute register wheel should have a little play (at zero setting,
The heart piece lever does not touch the heart piece).

The safety you need
The arm of the heart piece lever is still in contact with the bridge,
the transmission wheel being held in a disengaged position by the shift wheel;
Make sure it is securely between the teeth of the star wheel.

When the chronograph is set to zero,
The tip of the zero setter touches the pin of the blocking lever,
The process is completed by simply increasing the pressure.

The contacts are easy to oil:
Heart piece lever with heart piece,
Star wheel carrying arm with blocking lever pin,
Carrying arm with crown wheel,
The blocking lever on the crown wheel,
Spring for the starting arm on the latch,
Apply to the crown wheel block of the crown wheel.

Mounting the movement

Spring-loaded push buttons or push buttons with contact flanges are
It must be installed before moving.

Those with grooves in the contact area can only be installed if the movement is inside the case.

Remove the start arm,
Remove the zero setter if necessary.

In either case, insert the winding stem and
Set the two movement fixing screws,
You need to press the button to check the functionality of the mechanism.

Then, attach the dial and the hour, minute and second hands.
While pressing the Heart Piece Lever against the Heart Piece with the button,
Install the central chronograph hand and register hands.

Note: This move is one button (three functions)
But it was done.

This one-button mechanism has
The following special parts are required:

That number is followed by a /1.

Start arm 8140'/1 is
It is used on the "winding crown" button.

The component names and numbers are
Based on the 2nd edition of "Technical Dictionary of Watch Parts."

100 Movement Plate
106 Barrel and Wheel Train Bridge
118 Connecting Bridge
121 Balance Cock
125 Pallet Bridge
182 Barrel with Lid
195 main spring arbor
206 Center Wheel
210 Intermediate Wheel
225 seconds wheel
245 Cannon Pinion
255 Hour Wheel
260 minute wheel
301 Regulator
311 jeweled regulator plate
330 Cap Jewel Plate
Volume 401 True
407 Castle Wheel
410 Winding Crown Wheel
415 ratchet wheel
420 External spring transmission
423 Inner spring transmission
425 clicks
430 click spring
435 Return Lever
440 Return lever screw
443 clutch lever
445 clutch spring
450 hand set gear
453 Auxiliary Handheld Gear
466 Handset Mechanism Cover Plate
705 escape wheel
710 pallets
714 Pallet Arbor
Balance with the 721 hairspring
723 Staff Balance
730 Roller Table
8000 central chronograph wheel installed
8020 minute register wheel, 30m mounted
8060 Drive Wheel 8070 Crown Wheel
8080 Carrying arm with transmission wheel
Star wheel carrying arm with 8100 star wheel
8102 Carrying arm mounting pin
Start arm with 8140 installed
8180 Zero Setter
8200 blocking lever
8220 Heart Peace Striker
8221 Heart Peace Striker
8270 Jumper Spring
8290 Friction Spring
8320 carrying arm spring
8325 carrying arm spring
8335 Start Arm Spring
8345 Blocking Lever Spring
8350 Heart Piece Lever Spring
8355 Crown Wheel Block
Eccentric for 8400 transmission wheels
8401 Transmission Contact Eccentricity
8406 Eccentricity for pointer contact
8500 Chronograph Wheel Bridge
5101 movement attachment screws.
5106 Long Head Barrel and Wheel Train Bridge Screws.
5106' Screw for short-headed barrel and wheel train bridge.
5118 Screw for combined bridge.
5121 Balance cock screw.
5125 pallet bridge screw.
5311 regulator screw.
5330 Cap Jewel Screw.
5423 transmission gear screw.
5425 click screw.
5430 click spring screws.
5435 Return lever screw.
5440 return lever spring screw.
5443 clutch screw.
5445 clutch spring screw.
5466 Handset mechanism cover plate screw.
5738 Hairspring Block Screw.
5751 Dial Foot Screw.
58070 Crown Wheel Screw.
58080 Carrying Arm Screw.
Start 58140 arm screw.
58200 Blocking lever screw.
58270 Jumper Spring Screw.
58290 Friction Spring Screw.
58320 carrying arm screw.
58325 Sterling Carrying Arm Screw.
58335 starting arm spring screw.
58345 Blocking Lever Spring Screw.
58350 Heart Piece Striker Screw.
58355 Crown Wheel Block Screw.
58500 Chronograph Bridge Screws.

With the aim of technically improving this caliber,
Some components were changed during production.

To help distinguish between different incompatible versions,
A symbol has been added to each number.

If you use special symbols,
The following details are also referenced:

No.* = No compatibility.

Number in brackets = component is no longer generated.

Unlike those shown here without special markings,
The older parts represent slightly altered forms,
It can be easily replaced with a new spare part.

When ordering seismic joint parts,
The latter type must be specified.

The terms and numbers in the "Technical Dictionary of Watch Parts" distributed by Ebauches AG are
It should be used as more specific information.